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How early did disk galaxies emerge?

Timeline for high-redshift galaxies
Image credit: Produced by the ALMA Observatory (August 2022) under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

The universe’s expansion history is one thing; but then there’s its structural evolution. In particular, how early did well-formed galaxies emerge?

• Space.com > “Galaxies in early universe were surprisingly diverse, James Webb Space Telescope finds” by Andrew Jones (Jan 16, 2023) – high-redshift galaxies (galaxies as they were around 11 to 13 billion years ago) exhibit various morphologies.

As part of the Cosmic Evolution Early Release Science (CEERS) Survey, new images from NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) of galaxies in the early days of the universe “have revealed the presence of mature features such as disks and spheroidal components.”

(quote) “This tells us that we don’t yet know when the earliest galaxy structures formed,” said (lead author) Kartaltepe. “We’re not yet seeing the very first galaxies with disks. We’ll have to examine a lot more galaxies at even higher redshifts to really quantify at what point in time features like disks were able to form.”