Diagram · General · Language · Problem

A particle by any other name?

[“What’s changed in the last ~50 years” series] Fundamental particles have properties; but not due to any constituents (cf. Feynman’s dilemma for an electron’s charge [1]). So, mathematical patterns of … localized “knots” (tangles or twists as in Möbius strips) – particular symmetries – of space-time energy? A landscape of colliding (interacting) ripples … How… Continue reading A particle by any other name?

General · Language · Media

Time crystals? – crystal patterns in space and time

Frank Wilczek referenced this topic – time crystals – in his latest book (Fundamentals: Ten Keys to Reality). Time crystals are physical systems that spontaneously settle into stable loops of behavior. I proposed this concept in 2012, and many interesting examples have been discovered since then, both theoretically and experimentally. A recent example is close to… Continue reading Time crystals? – crystal patterns in space and time

General · Language

Universal symmetries – what really is broken?

An article from Quanta Magazine (below) recaps the history of space-time symmetries in physics and how those symmetries have, in a sense, been simplified: Galilean (Newtonian) static, separate space and time. Relativistic “flat” space-time – Minkowski / Poincaré / Einstein. de Sitter spherical space-time: “… in the same way that the finite speed of light… Continue reading Universal symmetries – what really is broken?