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2020 highlights

So, it’s that time of year again: lots of recaps, lists of top this-and-that. Even milestones, discoveries, or breakthroughs in science.

Here’s a YouTube video highlighting some progress in physics:

• YouTube > Quanta Magazine > “The Year’s Biggest Breakthroughs in Physics” (Dec 23, 2020)

YouTube description:

This year, two teams of physicists made profound progress on ideas that could bring about the next revolution in physics. Another still has identified the source of a long-standing cosmic mystery.

• Here’s an extremely brief version of the black hole information paradox: Stuff falls into a black hole. Over time — a long, long time — the black hole “evaporates.” What happened to the stuff? According to the rules of gravity, it’s gone, its information lost forever. But according to the rules of quantum mechanics, information can never be lost. Therefore, paradox. This year, a series of tour de force calculations has shown that information must somehow escape — even if how it does so remains a mystery.

• Levitating trains, lossless power transmission, perfect energy storage: The promise of room-temperature superconductivity has fed many a utopian dream. A team based at the University of Rochester in New York reported that they had created a material based on a lattice of hydrogen atoms that showed evidence of superconductivity at up to about 15 degrees Celsius (59 degrees Fahrenheit) — about the temperature of a chilly room. The only catch: Superconductivity at this temperature only works if the material is crushed inside a diamond anvil to pressures approaching those of Earth’s core. Utopia will have to wait.

• A dazzling cosmic strobe has ended an enduring astronomical mystery. Fast radio bursts — blips of distant radio waves that last for mere milliseconds — have eluded explanation since they were first discovered in 2007. Or rather, astronomers had come up with far too many theories to explain what are, for the brief time they’re alight, the most powerful radio sources in the universe. But on a quiet morning in April, a burst “lit up our telescope like a Christmas tree,” said one astronomer. This allowed researchers to trace its source back to a part of the sky where an object had been shooting out X-rays. Astronomers concluded that a highly magnetized neutron star called a magnetar was behind the phenomenon.

Related posts

Quest for room temperature superconductivity

Magneto’s star

Does the universe have a shape?

2 thoughts on “2020 highlights

  1. So, some progress in what we know about the universe. This article (below, which requires a subscription) recaps some open cosmic mysteries.

    • New Scientist > “Everything we know about the universe – and a few things we don’t” by Stuart Clark (December 30, 2020) – How big is the universe? What shape is it? How fast is it expanding? And when will it end? We answer these questions and more in our essential guide to the current state of cosmological knowledge.

  2. The work for this active black hole survey started years ago. Recently highlighted; so, I’m including as a 2020 milestone.

    • Science Alert > “The White Dots in This Image Are Not Stars or Galaxies. They’re Black Holes” by Michelle Starr (22 February 2021)

    Totalling 25,000 such dots [covering four percent of the Northern sky], astronomers have created the most detailed map to date of black holes at low radio frequencies [frequencies below 100 megahertz], an achievement that took years and a Europe-sized radio telescope to compile.

    “This is the result of many years of work on incredibly difficult data,” explained astronomer Francesco de Gasperin of the University of Hamburg in Germany. “We had to invent new methods to convert the radio signals into images of the sky.

    Terms

    LOFAR (LOw Frequency ARray)
    LOFAR LBA Sky Survey (LoLSS)
    Ionosphere

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